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Grammar & Meter

I. Verbs

A. Forms: note especially syncopated forms (e.g., fuere for fuerunt, amasse for amavisse)

B. Meanings of different tenses of indicative: present, future, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect

C. Subjunctive

1. Independent clauses

a. hortatory (=jussive)

Eamus. Let’s go.

b. potential

Videas canem. You would see a dog.

c. deliberative

Maneam aut abeam? Should I stay or should I go?

2. Conditions

3. Dependent clauses (note for all of these sequence of tenses)

a. indirect question

Nescio quis sit. I do not know who he is.

b. relative clause of characteristic.

Sunt qui bibant. There are those who drink. (i.e., who are the kind of people who drink)

c. purpose

1. with ut:

Misit nuntium ut victoriam nuntiaret. He sent the messenger to announce the victory.

2. With a relative pronoun:

Misit nuntium qui victoriam nuntiaret. He sent the messenger to announce the victory.

d. result

Tantam pecuniam habebat ut omnia emere posset. He had so much money that he could buy everything.

e. cum clauses

1. causal

Cum eum odissem, eum necavi. Since I hated him, I killed him.

2. concessive

Cum eum amarem, eum necavi. Although I loved him, I killed him.

3. temporal in past (temporal in present is usually indicative)

Cum Romae viverem, laetus eram. While I lived at Rome I was happy.

f. jussive noun clauses

Impero tibi ut eam serves. 

g. clauses of fear

1. something I fear will happen starts with ne.

Timeo ne deficiat. I am afraid he will fail.

2. something I fear will not happen starts with ut

Timeo ut rem bene gerat. I am afraid that he will not succeed.

h. with quin

1. clauses of hindering

Obstabat quin abiret. She kept him from going away.

2. negative clauses of doubt

Non dubito quin rem bene geras. I do not doubt that you will succeed.

i. subordinate clauses within indirect statement

Dixit sacerdotes qui deos precati essent urbem servavisse. He said that the priests who had prayed to the gods had saved the city.

D. Infinitives

1. complementary

Possum videre te. I can see you.

2. indirect statement (note use of accusative subject, and relative tenses)

Dixit me fortem esse. He said that I was brave.

E. Imperative: for commands

F. Participles

1. present active

Vidimus feminam canentem. We saw the singing woman

2. perfect passive

Vidimus urbem captam. We saw the captured city.

3. future active

Vidimus milites urbem capturos. We saw the soldiers about to capture the city.

G. Gerund and gerundive, passive periphrastic

H. deponent verbs: passive in form, active in meaning

I. impersonal verbs: have no subject

Mihi opus est pecunia. I need money.

Tibi licet abire. You can go.

Me oportet linguae Latinae studere. I ought to study Latin.

J. Defective verbs (verbs missing some tenses): e.g., odi, memini

II. Nouns

A. Forms

B. Uses of cases

1. Nominative

a. subject

b. predicate

Mater mea liberta facta est. My mother became a freedwoman.

2. Genitive

a. possession

b. partitive

Pars Romae ardet. Part of Rome is burning.

c. description

Est vir summae virtutis. He is a man of the greatest courage.

d. objective

Amor Helenae omnes incendit. Love for Helen set everyone on fire.

e. subjective

Amor Helenae ei persuasit ut Menelaum relinqueret. Helen’s love persuaded her to leave Menelaus.

f. with some verbs

Tui memini.  I remember you.

3. Dative

a. indirect object

b. possession

Mihi est soror. I have a sister.

c. purpose

Tibi auxilio ero. I will be a help to you.

d. with certain verbs

1. compound verbs

His adsentior. I agree to these things.

2. others

Mihi crede. Trust me.

e. agent (only with passive periphrastic)

Hic liber mihi legendus erat. I had to read this book.

4. Accusative

a. direct object

b. subject of indirect statement

Dixit me fugisse.  He said that I had fled.

c. duration of time

Multos annos tecum laborabam. I worked with you for many years.

d. place to which

1. with various prepositions.

Curro ad Galliam. I am running to Gaul.

2. no preposition for cities, towns, and small islands

Curro Romam. I am running to Rome.

5. Ablative

a. means

Cenam nostram igni paravit. He prepared our dinner with fire.

b. manner

Magno studio pugnabat. He was fighting with great zeal.

c. accompaniment

Cum amicis veni. I came with my friends.

d. with some adjectives

Digna laude est. She is worthy of praise.

e. time when or within which

Hoc anno eos vicimus. This year we defeated them.

f. place from which

1. with various prepositions

Curro e Gallia. I am running out of Gaul.

2. without preposition for cities, towns, and small islands

Curro Roma. I am running from Rome.

g. comparison

Maior est te. He is bigger than you.

h. degree of difference

Multo sum altior quam tu. I am much taller than you.

i. ablative absolute

Cane viso, fugi. When I saw the dog (literally: the dog having been seen), I fled.

j. separation

Me metu liberavisti. You have freed me from fear.

k. with verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vescor

6. Vocative: for direct address

7. Locative: place where for cities, towns, and small islands, domi, and ruri.

Sum Romae. I am at Rome.

III. Pronouns

A. Forms

B. various types

personal: ego, tu, etc.

reflexive: se

intensive: ipse

indefinite: is, ea, id

interrogative: quis, quid (watch these and other words starting with "q")

relative: qui, quae, quod

IV. Adjectives

A. Forms

B. Agreement with nouns in case, number, and gender

C. various types

interrogative (qui, quae, quod)

possessive (meus, tuus, etc.)

demonstrative (hic, ille, iste)

V. Adverbs

A. Forms

B. Use

VI. Prepositions

A. Meaning

B. Which takes which case

VII. Conjunctions: et, sed, etc.

VIII. interrogatives

A. -ne: yes or no

Sumne pulcher? Am I pretty?

B. nonne: expects answer "yes"

Nonne sum pulcher? Am I not pretty?

C. num: expects answer "no"

Num sum pulcher? I am not pretty, am I?

IX. numerals

A. Cardinal (unus, duo, etc.)

B. Ordinal (primus, secundus, etc.)

C. frequentative (bis, ter, etc.)

X. comparatives and superlatives

A. comparatives: -ior, -ius, 3rd declension:

Volo diligentiorem magistrum. I want a more careful teacher.

B. superlatives: -issimus, a, um, 2nd declension

Volo diligentissimum magistrum. I want the most careful teacher.

C. Irregulars (e.g., melior, optimus, peior, pessimus)

XI. Meter: watch for numbers of spondees and dactyls, and for caesurae

A. dactylic hexameter

B. elegiac couplet

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