A. Forms: note especially syncopated forms (e.g., fuere for fuerunt, amasse
B. Meanings of different tenses of indicative: present, future, imperfect, perfect,
pluperfect, future perfect
1. Independent clauses
a. hortatory (=jussive)
Eamus. Lets go.
Videas canem. You would see a dog.
Maneam aut abeam? Should I stay or should I go?
3. Dependent clauses (note for all of these sequence of
a. indirect question
Nescio quis sit. I do not know who he is.
b. relative clause of characteristic.
Sunt qui bibant. There are those who drink. (i.e., who are the kind of people
1. with ut:
Misit nuntium ut victoriam nuntiaret. He sent the messenger to announce the
2. With a relative pronoun:
Misit nuntium qui victoriam nuntiaret. He sent the messenger to announce the
Tantam pecuniam habebat ut omnia emere posset. He had so much money that he
could buy everything.
e. cum clauses
Cum eum odissem, eum necavi. Since I hated him, I killed him.
Cum eum amarem, eum necavi. Although I loved him, I killed him.
3. temporal in past (temporal in present is usually indicative)
Cum Romae viverem, laetus eram. While I lived at Rome I was happy.
f. jussive noun clauses
Impero tibi ut eam serves.
g. clauses of fear
1. something I fear will happen starts with ne.
Timeo ne deficiat. I am afraid he will fail.
2. something I fear will not happen starts with ut
Timeo ut rem bene gerat. I am afraid that he will not succeed.
h. with quin
1. clauses of hindering
Obstabat quin abiret. She kept him from going away.
2. negative clauses of doubt
Non dubito quin rem bene geras. I do not doubt that you will succeed.
i. subordinate clauses within indirect statement
Dixit sacerdotes qui deos precati essent urbem servavisse. He said that the
priests who had prayed to the gods had saved the city.
Possum videre te. I can see you.
2. indirect statement (note use of accusative subject,
and relative tenses)
Dixit me fortem esse. He said that I was brave.
E. Imperative: for commands
1. present active
Vidimus feminam canentem. We saw the singing woman
2. perfect passive
Vidimus urbem captam. We saw the captured city.
3. future active
Vidimus milites urbem capturos. We saw the soldiers about to capture the city.
G. Gerund and gerundive, passive periphrastic
H. deponent verbs: passive in form, active in meaning
I. impersonal verbs: have no subject
Mihi opus est pecunia. I need money.
Tibi licet abire. You can go.
Me oportet linguae Latinae studere. I ought to study Latin.
J. Defective verbs (verbs missing some tenses): e.g., odi, memini
B. Uses of cases
Mater mea liberta facta est. My mother became a freedwoman.
Pars Romae ardet. Part of Rome is burning.
Est vir summae virtutis. He is a man of the greatest courage.
Amor Helenae omnes incendit. Love for Helen set everyone on fire.
Amor Helenae ei persuasit ut Menelaum relinqueret. Helens love persuaded
her to leave Menelaus.
f. with some verbs
Tui memini. I remember you.
a. indirect object
Mihi est soror. I have a sister.
Tibi auxilio ero. I will be a help to you.
d. with certain verbs
1. compound verbs
His adsentior. I agree to these things.
Mihi crede. Trust me.
e. agent (only with passive periphrastic)
Hic liber mihi legendus erat. I had to read this book.
a. direct object
b. subject of indirect statement
Dixit me fugisse. He said that I had fled.
c. duration of time
Multos annos tecum laborabam. I worked with you for many years.
d. place to which
1. with various prepositions.
Curro ad Galliam. I am running to Gaul.
2. no preposition for cities, towns, and small islands
Curro Romam. I am running to Rome.
Cenam nostram igni paravit. He prepared our dinner with fire.
Magno studio pugnabat. He was fighting with great zeal.
Cum amicis veni. I came with my friends.
d. with some adjectives
Digna laude est. She is worthy of praise.
e. time when or within which
Hoc anno eos vicimus. This year we defeated them.
f. place from which
1. with various prepositions
Curro e Gallia. I am running out of Gaul.
2. without preposition for cities, towns, and small islands
Curro Roma. I am running from Rome.
Maior est te. He is bigger than you.
h. degree of difference
Multo sum altior quam tu. I am much taller than you.
i. ablative absolute
Cane viso, fugi. When I saw the dog (literally: the dog having been seen), I
Me metu liberavisti. You have freed me from fear.
k. with verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vescor
6. Vocative: for direct address
7. Locative: place where for cities, towns, and small islands, domi, and ruri.
Sum Romae. I am at Rome.
B. various types
personal: ego, tu, etc.
indefinite: is, ea, id
interrogative: quis, quid (watch these and other words
starting with "q")
relative: qui, quae, quod
B. Agreement with nouns in case, number, and gender
C. various types
interrogative (qui, quae, quod)
possessive (meus, tuus, etc.)
demonstrative (hic, ille, iste)
B. Which takes which case
VII. Conjunctions: et, sed, etc.
A. -ne: yes or no
Sumne pulcher? Am I pretty?
B. nonne: expects answer "yes"
Nonne sum pulcher? Am I not pretty?
C. num: expects answer "no"
Num sum pulcher? I am not pretty, am I?
A. Cardinal (unus, duo, etc.)
B. Ordinal (primus, secundus, etc.)
C. frequentative (bis, ter, etc.)
X. comparatives and superlatives
A. comparatives: -ior, -ius, 3rd declension:
Volo diligentiorem magistrum. I want a more careful teacher.
B. superlatives: -issimus, a, um, 2nd declension
Volo diligentissimum magistrum. I want the most careful teacher.
C. Irregulars (e.g., melior, optimus, peior, pessimus)
XI. Meter: watch for numbers of spondees and dactyls, and for caesurae
A. dactylic hexameter
B. elegiac couplet