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Teaching AP

We would like to devote this page to sharing strategies and methodologies that are specific to teaching AP Latin.  

The first part of this page will be a Question and Answer section, from the AP Latin List. If it grows, I will give it a separate page. The second part will be Teaching Tips.

If you have something you'd like to contribute, please contact me at ginlindzey@lindzey.us.

tibi gratias ago--
Ginny Lindzey

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from the AP Latin List

I have a question/concern about the scoring of translations on the AP. I  decided to test myself using the recent Classical Outlook in which last  year's Vergil exam is discussed. I translated both of the passages and then  compared mine to the answer, as well as the acceptable translations for  words. 

My question--how strictly do the scorers stick to the words listed? Is   there any allowance for additional synonyms or words that are very close in  meaning? 

I ask this because, if I stuck with only the words listed, I would have  received a 7/9 on one and an 8/9 on the other, based not at all on grammar, but completely due to slight variances on words, e.g., incautious for  incautum instead of unsuspecting, careless, or heedless. 

This is worrying me because I have several students who are very strong translators, and I would hate for them to lose points based on this. --Melissa Goldman

I don't think you or your students need to worry about this at all. I've been a Reader for AP several times. The synonyms you see are some some fixed list that the Readers start with but rather emerge from looking at what students have actually written and deciding what is in the range of "correct". So don't have your students anxious about there being some one "right word" when another English word would mean virtually thre same thing.--Ronnie Ancona Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY

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General Information

If you are new to teaching AP Latin, there are some books you should be aware of. First and foremost is the "Acorn" book, the AP Course Description for Latin, available from College Board. This book and others (see Announcements page) are available at the College Board site. To find AP Latin materials, go to http://cbweb2.collegeboard.org/shopping/ap.html and scroll down to Select a Program and click on Latin. 

Another book worth having is Latin for the 21st Century, ed. by Rick LaFleur. This book includes a useful chapter on AP Latin written by Peggy Brucia. This book is now distributed by  Prentice Hall, 800-848-9500.

The Classical Outlook, the journal of the American Classical League which is edited by Rick LaFleur, has a yearly report from the readers of the AP exam. This year's report is "The Grading of the 1999 Advanced Placement Examinations in Latin: Vergil" by Peter Howard.  Joining the American Classical League gives you a subscription to both The Classical Outlook and the ACL Newsletter.

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Essay Writing Skills

A question was posed to the AP Latin list on how to teach students to write good essays.  There were many responses, which are gathered below.

  • First, I instruct them regarding organization:  intro, body, conclusion (yes, even short essays must have a structure). Secondly, I tell them that they can never receive full credit on an essay which either a) does not address the question asked or b) does not answer both or all parts of the question. Thirdly, we discuss support, examples and the difference between support and translation. Finally, we PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE.  Second semester, they will have an in-class essay once a week.  I also show them samples of "9" essays from the publications of the Classical Outlook. Hope this helps.  Judy Arnette


  • As an AP English teacher, I agree with the comments about careful reading of the prompt to make sure they know what is being asked.  I also think that students who can organize a paper with a clearly stated main idea, at least one strong supporting statement (preferably two or three), and a conclusion have an easier time organizing their thoughts  under pressure.  And, of course I agree that practice is essential.  However, my question as an AP Latin teacher is what am I looking for when we review the practice essays?  The students use Sally Davis'  SWIMTAG (see below) to analyze poetry, but should I stress one area over another for the essays?  Is there an order of importance? Donna Winstanley


  • What is SWIMTAG?
    S W I M T A G
    Sounds - What strikes your ear?  alliteration, assonance, repetition of words or sounds?  B D G P T K - stops - hard, harsh sounds; S F Z H - softer:  wind, whispers; M N - nasals - moaning, humming, rumbling, possibly sadness; L R - liquids - flowing, trilling; O U - round, impressive, monumental, solemn sounds.  Read passage aloud, noting any obvious effects. (Consider Sound with Meter) 
    Word Order - First and last positions in line are places of importance. Note series of words, phrases, sentences (build-up, let-down).  Note juxtaposition, oxymoron, asyndeton (non-stop action), polysyndeton (heaping, piling-on), ellipsis, chiasmus (balance, completion, embracing), synchesis (often interlocks meaning also, impressionistically), framing (words actually surround central objects), anastrophe, tmesis, hysteron-proteron (overturning, reversal, emphasis), anaphora (demands attention); Note HOW these figures affect the message. 
    Word Choice - any unusual words, or unusual use of ordinary words; echoes of law, religion, other literary passages; exotic or foreign words?
    Images - What pictures form in your mind as you read?  Note similes, metaphors, hyperbole, contrast, colors, concrete objects. 
    Meter - Scan by reading aloud; note preponderance of dactyls or spondees in any lines); dactyls - faster, lighter, lilting; spondees - slower, heavier, grander.  Several elisions together - halting, emotional, fearful.  Rhythm often reflects pace or mood of narrative. 
    Mood - What feelings come through?  Look at adjectives and verbs.  Is it formal, tragic, frightening, joyous, foreboding? 
    Tone - Can you sense or infer the author's attitude about the characters or the action (from choice of words or actual comments to reader)? 
    Theme - How does the passage relate to the overall theme(s) of the work? Note philosophical beliefs and/or political program. 
    Allusions - Note proper nouns - myths, customs, beliefs, history, geography. Note significance and how and what these add to the passage. 
    Grammar - Look at pattern of verb tenses - any unexpected?  Look at person of verb.  Who speaks? - To whom?  Tone formal or intimate?  (2nd sing. - more intimate)  Many passive verbs?   Imperatives imply authority; gerundives, obligation.  Interjections imply strong emotion)  Is sentence structure convoluted, complex?  Are sentences short, abrupt?  Does sentence structure reflect action? David Pellegrino


  • For students that have a difficult time writing against the clock (for an exam), I would suggest making a simple outline.  I always took 5 minutes of my essay time to make an outline of my arguments/examples in the margin. This was nothing more than a word or two per point JUST SO I WOULDN'T FORGET to make that point!  There's nothing worse than writing under pressure and the moment the exam is turned in that you realize you left out something important from your argument!  Students who do this will find themselves better prepared for "bluebook" exams in college--the all essay exam--that is found in many lit and history classes. 
    If using SWIMTAG, tell them to write that acronym in the margin and make a few notes of examples they want to use.  Tell them to give themselves only 5 minutes to do so, and then to get writing. 
    Of course, these are hints for writing for exams.  More time, of course, can be taken for outlines and such things before writing a careful essay for homework. 
    One book I had in college that helped with writing is called Writing with Style: Conversations on the art of Writing by John Trimble. ISBN 0-13-970368-3.  I learned to write the "five paragraph essay" in high school but never seemed to do it well. This book really helped.  I haven't read it in a long time, but still keep it on my shelf as a reference.  If you have students that truly WANT to write better essays, please tell them about this book.  Ginny Lindzey


  • I have been reading with interest the suggestions posted recently on the list concerning teaching students essay writing skills. This is indeed one of the more challenging aspects of the course. I agree with everyone's suggestions that addressing the topic, practicing, and organizing one's answer are key concepts. 
    However, I have found that when I ask students to outline an answer they have no idea of what to do. I'm not talking about a formal outline with subtopics -- I mean just a list of points. Without some indication of a format within which to present their ideas, students tend to write off-topic or confusing answers. Having been an AP reader for many years, I have read many, many essays in which I must connect the dots (so
    to speak) for the students in order to understand exactly what they are trying to say and what the relevance to the topic is. 

    So....here is how I teach my students to write an AP essay. I do all of the things everyone has recommended, but I do this activity first. In fact, depending on the ability of the class, I might not even "allow" them to write an essay until they can do what is about to follow. Most of my test questions are also like this. If the students can complete this activity correctly, they should be able to flesh it out into connected prose. I always start with "short essay" topics rather than something like the "long essay" on the actual AP exam. We don't write longer essays until the shorter topics are under control -- usually during second semester.

    I make a chart/table with the following headings:

    statement, Latin proof, translation/paraphrase, so what

    You can add as many "make as statement, etc." columns and as many "proofs" tied to each statement as you wish; each "make a statement" is basically a sub topic. 

    Let's use a modified version of V5 from the 1996 exam as an example. I ask the students to explain how Aeneas feels about granting Dido's request to tell her the story of his adventures/fall of Troy. (The AP question is based on Book II, lines 3-8; I ask it about lines 3-13 ending with incipiam.)

    The first thing the students must do is write a sentence (yes, just one sentence) that says Aeneas feels ------ or Aeneas reacts with ------. 

    Let's say that a student says that Aeneas feels sad about telling the story of Troy's fall and will do so only reluctantly.  Then they fill in the chart. (I'll skip the translation parts because we all know Latin.)

    For example: 
    statement: The memory of Troy's fall is sorrowful. 
    Latin proof: infandum
    so what: The first word he utters characterizes the grief as unspeakable. 
    Latin proof: infandum...dolorem
    so what: Aeneas' unutterable grief frames the line 
    Latin proof: lamentabile regnum
    so what: Aeneas thinks of the fallen Troy as woeful because... 
    Latin proof: ut opes...Danai
    so what: the Greeks utterly destroyed Troy (eruerint) and all its wealth and power; there is nothing left. 
    Latin proof: miserrima
    so what: Once again Aeneas emphasizes the sorrow of the events he witnessed - use of superlative. 
    Latin proof: quis...lacrimis
    so what: What happened to Troy is so distressing that even the most hardened enemy would be moved to tears.
    Latin proof: casus nostros, supremum laborem
    so what: The fall of Troy is described as a disastrous occurrence; its finality is noted.
    statement: Aeneas will tell the story reluctantly.
    Latin proof: regina, iubes
    so what: It's not his idea; he is being ordered by a queen who is his host. 
    Latin proof: renovare dolorem
    so what: Aeneas will reexperience his sorrow by telling the story of Troy's fall.
    Latin proof: ipse...vidi, quorum..fui
    so what: Aeneas was an eye-witness and a participant in the events; he experience the horror first-hand; tie into previous point
    Latin proof: si...laborem
    so what: Aeneas will tell the story only if Dido really wants him to; the conditional makes it seem as if he is offering her an opportunity to retract her request. 
    Latin proof: animus...refugit
    so what: Aeneas directly states that he recoils with horror and grief when remembering these events. 

    Yes, I know that there is more in the passage, but the "proof" I have cited above is a compilation of everything my students typically note. The SWIMTAG idea is wonderful for getting students "into" a passage, but often I have found the results to be lists of "stuff" without any critical stance.

    We spend a lot of time working on this sort of thing in class not only just prior to a test but also during daily work when we read a passage which suggests a topic to me (or which has been covered in a previous AP test). After a while the kids get pretty observant and even begin suggesting things to talk about.

    You can do this activity as an entire class, in smaller groups, or individually. You could even conference with students or groups. In any event, once students can "outline" a topic in this way, they can write an amazingly perceptive (and analytical rather than descriptive) essay.

    Are all of my students wonder kids? No. I have a few who still can't do this very well. But at least everyone can pick out pertinent parts of passages; some just have to work on the "so what" part. Sue Bonvallet

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Vocabulary Building

A question was posed to the AP Latin list on how to help students (specifically students studying Vergil) build their vocabulary.  There were many responses, which are gathered below.

  • (1) require students to make flashcards for new vocabulary from the beginning of Latin I to the end of AP, and give them short times in class to work with the cards periodically.  (I use Cambridge for Latin I-III and do the Catullus/Ovid AP; over the years I've developed a list of the "new" words students meet in AP that they did not learn in the Cambridge books, so they make cards for these as they meet them.)
    (2)  In addition to quizzes over new words, give periodic quizzes over old familiar vocabulary.  I schedule a "Vocabulary Review Quiz" over a specified list (or lists) every week or two, as well as a quiz over new vocabulary.
    (3)  Encourage students to find derivatives and/or create mnemonics to help them remember vocabulary. 
    (4)  Expect that any given student on any given day will forget at least one word.  It's natural and inevitable, I fear. optima fortuna tibi.   Justin M. Schwamm, Jr.


  • One thing I did was to give a short quiz almost every week. I did not test vocabulary as a separate item. It was a pretty standard format -  a few lines to translate, a few identifications, and maybe a question modeled after the short ones on the AP test. Most students will not review lines on their own.  Some won't even do it when there is a weekly quiz.  But a weekly quiz gives them a relatively small amount of lines to review.
    Theoretically, in one week they looked at the lines on their own, looked at the lines when we did them in class, looked at the lines when they reviewed, looked at some of the lines when they took the quiz, and looked at the lines when they quickly went over them. 
    I told them that they should keep a personal vocabulary list of select key words or make vocabulary cards if that worked for them. 
    Another thing I did sometimes at the beginning of a class was ask for someone to quickly translate the lines we had done the day before.  It was sometimes depressing to see how much they had forgotten so quickly, but it still went much faster than the previous day. The good students who are serious about the exam will start volunteering because they realize that it's a free review, and they will translate them pretty quickly and accurately. 
    . . . .I guess my theory was that they were better off looking at words in context as often as possible.    Donna Jacobsen


  • I'd start out by having them memorize the vocabulary from the foldout in the back of the Pharr book. That will start them with a solid basis. Paul Minden


  • I favor re-reading material, be it old chapters in the early years or a good passage/poem for older students; when this is done, students should make certain to note which words remain fuzzy and then set to making them clear and solid.  
    We also work on helping our students learn how to guess at words they don't know.  Starting in our first year (seventh grade), we include a few unknown words in passages to translate; a reasonable guess, even if wrong, does not lose points; omissions, however, are penalized severely.   Granted, if there are too many unfamiliar words, this doesn't work, but readers of latin need to learn how to make a sensible guess.  AP students should certainly be able to identify the part of speech, and, with context, they should be encouraged to make a good guess - or at least avoid a rotten suggestion.  this does not replace learning vocabulary but complements the purpose. Emily Silverman 

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SSS -- Similes, Scenes & Speeches

from Linda Fleming

Book I
Neptune/statesman  148         
Venus/huntress 314         
Carthage/bees 430              
Dido/Diana  494            
Aeneas/statue 588                  
Temple of Janus  293           
Mural 446              
Trojan gifts 647       
Iopas the bard 740     
Juno to self  37
Juno to Aeolus 65
Aeolus to Juno 76
Aeneas (storm)  94
Neptune to Winds 132
Aeneas to men 198
Venus to Jupiter 229
Jupiter to Venus 257
Venus to Aeneas 321
Aeneas to Venus 326
Venus to Aeneas 335
Aeneas to Venus 372
Venus to Aeneas 387
Aeneas to Venus 407
Aeneas to self 437
Ilioneus to Dido 522               
Dido to Trojans 562
Achates to Aeneas 582  
Aeneas to Dido 595     
Dido to Aeneas 615     
Venus to Cupid 664     
Dido (prayer)  731
Dido to Aeneas 753

Book II
Greek/snake 379    
War/wind storm     
Pyrrhus/snake 471      
Women/doves 515    
Troy/old oak           
Oracle to Greeks 116   
Portents 171           
Twin snakes 203    
Entry of horse     
Temple in Palace 483   
Portent of Iulus 679       
Comet 692              
Trio of Troy 721       
Aeneas story  1 ff.
Laocoon to Trojans 42
Sinon to Trojans 69
Sinon's lie  69 ff.
Priam to Sinon 148
Hector's Ghost 281
Aeneas to Panthus 322
Panthus to Aeneas 324          
Androgeos to men 373
Coroebus to men 387
Hecuba to Priam 519
Priam to Pyrrhus 535
Pyrrhus to Priam 547
Aeneas to Helen 577
Venus to Aeneas 594
Anchises to Aeneas 638
Aeneas to Anchises 657
Creusa to Aeneas 657   
Anchises' prayer 689   
Anchises' prayer 701   
Aeneas to Anchises 707     
Anchises to Aeneas 753     
Creusa's ghost to Aeneas 776  

Book IV
Dido/deer 68   
Aeneas/Apollo 143  
Dido/Bacchante 300 
Trojans/ants 402   
Aeneas/Alpine oak 441  
Wedding 165
Fama 173   
Mercury's descent 238  
Portent at sacrifice 453   
Sychaeus' Tomb 457 
Dreams of mad Dido 465 
Magic priestess 487
Temple in palace 504   
Juno and Iris 693  
Dido to Anna 9
Anna to Dido 31
Juno to Venus 93
Venus to Juno 107
Juno to Venus 115
Iarbas to Jupiter 206
Juppiter to Mercury 223
Mercury to Aeneas 265
Aeneas to self, men 283
Dido to Aeneas 305
Aeneas to Dido 333
Dido to Aeneas 365
Dido to Anna 478
Dido to self 535
Mercury to Aeneas 560
Aeneas to men 573
Dido's curse  590
Dido to Barce 634
Dido's farewell 651
Anna to Dido 675
Iris 702

Book VI. (1-211, 384-476, 752-901)
golden bough 205   
Hades/night 268
Dido/ moon 450 
Roma/ Magna Mater 781  
Temple doors 20
Sibyl possessed 46 
Entrance to Hell 417   
Fields of Mourning 440
History of Rome 760
Marcellus 868  
Gates of Horn & Ivory 893  
Poet to Apollo 18
Poet to Icarus 30
Sibyl to Aeneas 37
Sibyl   45
Sibyl 51
Aeneas' prayer 56
Sibyl  83
Aeneas 103
Sibyl 125
Aeneas to self 187
Aeneas to doves 194
Charon to Aeneas 388
Sibyl to Charon 399
Aeneas to Dido 456
Anchises 756
Aeneas 863
Anchises 868

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Figures of Speech and Syntax

from Linda Fleming

Syntax    Aeneid I.1-300

alliteration        repetition of consonanat sounds
    181 prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem

anaphora        repetition of introductory word
    78  Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Iovemque
        concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divom,

aposiopoesis        a breaking off in mid-speech
    135 Quos ego -- sed motos praestat componere fluctus.

apostrophe      direct address to someone distant or something
    94  talia voce refert: 'O terque quaterque beati,

assonance       interior rhyme or repetition of vowel sounds
    152 conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant;

asyndeton       omission of connectives
    165 Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum, intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo, nympharum domus:

chiasmus        reversed word order ABBA
    11  impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

ellipsis        omission of necessary word(s)
    76  Aeolus haec contra: 'Tuus, O regina, quid optes

euphemism       use of pleasant for unpleasant expression
    218 spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant,
        sive extrema pati nec iam exaudire vocatos.

hendiadys       two nouns to express one idea
    61  hoc metuens, molemque et montis insuper altos

hyperbole       overstatement (exaggeration)
    103 velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit.

hysteron/proteron    reversal of natural order (cart before the horse)
    69  incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes,            ??

irony           sarcasm
    37  haec secum: 'Mene incepto desistere victam,
        nec posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem?

litotes         understatement
    130 nec latuere doli fratrem Iunonis et irae.

metaphor        implied comparison (no like or as)
    52          Hic vasto rex Aeolus antro
        luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras
        imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere frenat.

metonymy        use of one name for another
    35  vela dabant laeti, et spumas salis aere ruebant,

onomatopoeia         sound suggests sense
    55  Illi indignantes magno cum murmure montis
        circum claustra fremunt;

oxymoron        juxtaposition of contradictory words (paradox)

personification giving human capability to an object
    169 ulla tenent, unco non alligat ancora morsu.

pleonasm        superfluous wording (redundancy)

polysyndeton        use of unnecessary conjunctions
    85  una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis

prolepsis       use of word beforehand (a looking forward)
    69  incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes,            ??

simile          comparison using like or as
    82  impulit in latus: ac venti, velut agmine facto,
        qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant.

synchesis       interlocking word order ABAB
    4   vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram; 

synecdoche      use of part for the whole
    71  incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes,   

tmesis          separation of a compound word into two words
    175 succepitque ignem foliis, atque arida circum
        nutrimenta dedit,

zeugma          two nouns used where only one is strictly applicable
    264 contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet,

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Certamen Fun

Certamen -- Book 11 
by Linda Fleming


1 What spoils is Aeneas hanging up as Book 11 opens?
    a. What tree trunk does he use
    b. To what god does he dedicate the spoils

2 What does Aeneas do with Pallas' body?
    a. How large a retinue does he send with the body
    b. What does the horse Aethon do

3 What request do the Latins make of Aeneas?
    a. Who replies to Aeneas when he grants the request
    b. How many days' truce is granted

4 How do the Pallanteans greet the body of Pallas?
    a. What rituals do they carry out at the pyre (2 part)
    b. What rituals do they carry out at the pyre (2 part)

5 What interrupts Latinus as he speaks against Turnus?
    a. Who is Venulus
    b. What does Diomedes say about fate of Greek heroes

6 What was Diomedes advice about Aeneas
    a.What is Latinus' plan
    b. What advice does Drances add

7 How does Turnus taunt Drances?
    a. What message now interrupts the council
    b. Turnus arms and rushes out -- like what

8 Who is Camilla?
    a. What is her plan
    b. What is Turnus' plan

9 Who is Metabus?
    a. How does he get Camilla across the river
    b. How does he raise Camilla

10 To what god/goddess is Camilla devoted?
    a. How was she suckled as an infant
    b. What does she wear

11 Who is Opis?
    a. What does Diana know about Camilla
    b. What does Diana give Opis

12  What simile is used of armies meeting and retreating?
    a. To whom is Camilla compared
    b. Who accompanies Camilla

13 What does the term Aristeia mean?
    a. What is an ekphrasis
    b. Name an ekphrasis (from any book of Aeneid)

14  How does the son of Aunus try to trick Camilla?
    a. Who snatches up the latin Venulus like an eagle
    b. Who stalks Camilla on the battle field

15 Why does Camilla find Chloreus an attractive foe?
    a. To what god/goddess does Arruns pray
    b. What half of prayer is granted

16 To whom does the dying Camilla send Acca?
    a. What does Opis do   
    b. What do the Latins do after Camilla's death

17 What happens at city walls?
    a. What does Turnus do
    b. What does Aeneas do

18   What figure of speech in Fitzgerald's translation
      Now spreading measureless a shout went up
      To strike the golden stars.
    a.    There driven deep
            The shaft drank the girl's blood
    b.    No new love this, come just now to Diana,
            Moving my heart with pleasure . . .


1 Mezentius' armor
    a. oak
    b. Mars

2 Sends it to Evander
    a. 1000 men
    b. weeps

3 Truce for burial
    a. Drances
    b. twelve

4 With torches at night
   a./b. ride 3 times around the pyre and toss in spoils
5 Diomedes' answer
    a. messenger
    b. cruel fates

6 Don't fight him
    a. cede land
    b. give Lavinia

7 For being an orator
    a. Trojans come
    b. a stallion

8 Woman warrior
    a. fight first
    b. ambush

9 Father of Camilla
    a. spear shaft
    b. as warrior

10 Diana
    a. mare's milk
    b. tiger skin

11. Favorite of Diana
    a. will die
    b. one arrow

12 Ebb and flow of sea
    a. Amazon
    b. chosen women

13 Display of valor
    a. picture in words
    b. temple doors

14 Fight on foot
    a. Tarchon
    b. Arruns
15 His golden armor
    a. Apollo
    b. he kills Camilla

16 To Turnus
    a. kills Arruns
    b. flee to city

17 Gates are closed & Mothers fight
    a. leaves ambush
    b. approaches city

18  Hyperbole
    a. personification
    b. litotes

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Aeneid Prelections and Outlines

The following are links to Word Documents created by the generous Donald Connor to assist in the study of Aeneid.




If you have problems downloading these files, please let me know and I will turn them into straight html. 

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Aeneid Vocab Lists

Click this link for a MS Word version of Aeneid Vocab lists by Dennis De Young, Montgomery Bell Academy, Nashville, TN; DennisDY@aol.com.

Better yet, you can find this online at http://www.montgomerybell.com/~deyound/.

After the general wordlist there are three word frequency lists: words used 15 times or more, 9-14 times, and 5-8 times.

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ginnyfx.jpg (12724 bytes) AP Latin home page | TCA home page

Last updated August 26, 2002. This site was created September 1998 by Ginny Lindzey, Webmistress, Texas Classical Association. To report problems and errors, please contact Ginny at ginlindzey@lindzey.us